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How to grow roses?
Most flower gardeners grow at least one type of rose. Roses come in many different varieties, colors, and sizes. THey are a beautiful flower which symbolizes love. The rose is also America's national flower.
You can start to grow your own roses by either first buying one at your local nursery, or you can grow a rose by propagation. Propagation is growing a rose by using a cutting from an existing plant. This is started by first getting some fresh cuttings from a friends's or family member's healthy rose plant. Choose a container, such as a large flower pot, that has plenty of holes in the bottom. Roses need good drainage at all times.They do not grow well when their roots are standing in water. Add a layer of sand or small rocks in the bottom of the container to help with the drainage. Next, add another inch or two of loose, organic material. Finally, add enough potting soil to come within a couple inches of the top of the flower pot.
Now, choose a healthy looking cutting. Carefully snip off the bottom of the cutting, right below the lowest leaf. Cut the bottom at an angle. This will enable the cutting to absorb the water and the nutrients that it needs to grow better. And finally, stick the cut bottom into the container that you have prepared. Place the container in a sunny spot and water it often.
This is now the part that takes the most time--waiting for it to grow. It will take up to a month or so for the cutting to grow a good root system on it. It all depends on the cutting and its conditions. When the cutting has grown roots, you will be able to see the roots throuhg the holes in the bottom of the container. At that time,you will need to transplant the tiny rose into a bigger container so it has plenty of room to grow and flourish even more.
You can then plant your rose outside in an appropriate place. A good place to plant your rose is in a spot where it will get at least six hours of full sunshine everyday. Make a hole big enough so that the roots of the rose plant have plenty of room to grow and spread out. Place small rocks or sand in the bottom of the hole to provide good drainage for your rose. You can add fertilizerif you want to, to help the growth, but it is not necessary because the rose plant will get the nutrients it needs from the soil, as long as the soil is not depleted. Loosen up the dirt before putting it back into the hole, and then plant your rose. Water it often to first month or so.
When your rose plant gets big enough, it needs to be pruned every spring. You can do this by cutting off the dead leaves and branches, and cutting off any suckers that the plant might have on it. After you prune your rose, you should fertilize it well. Check for pests, too. If you find that your rose has any, buy a good bug repellent at your local lawn and garden store.
Your rose plant will continue to grow and become bigger and more beautiful every year. Do not forget that you can share your rose with friends, neighbors, and family memebers by giving them starts of it.
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How to Study and Make the Most of Your Time
Effective study skills must be practiced in order for you to improve. It is not enough to simply "think about" studying; you have to actually do it, and in the process use information from what you do to get better. This is the central idea of this page. All that follows depends on this single concept. There is a saying that goes like this: "Practice doesn't make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect." If you want to be an achiever, take this saying to heart.
The value of a schedule
Before you even begin to think about the process of studying, you must develop a schedule. If you don't have a schedule or plan for studying, then you will not have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up. A good, well thought out schedule can be a lifesaver. It's up to you to learn how develop a schedule that meets your needs, revise it if necessary, and most important, follow it.
A schedule saves time
All schedules should be made with the idea that they can be revised. A good schedule keeps you from wandering off course. A good schedule, if properly managed, assigns time where time is needed, but you've got to want to do it!
Making every hour count
A schedule should take into account every class, laboratory, lecture, social event, and other work in which you engage. There are givens such as classes and so on that have to be incorporated. You must focus on the other "free time" available and how you will use it. Make a weekly schedule and block off the 24 hour day in one hour increments. Indicate times for classes, labs, lectures, social, and work time. Also block off a period for sleeping each day. With what is left over, plan time for study. This gives you a rough road map of the time available. Of course, you can revise your schedule as circumstances warrant.
When to study
The problem of when to study is critical. A good rule of thumb is that studying should be carried out only when you are rested, alert, and have planned for it. Last minute studying just before a class is usually a waste of time.
Studying for lecture courses
If your study period is before the lecture class, be sure you have read all the assignments and made notes on what you don't understand. If the study period is after the lecture class, review the notes you took during class while the information is still fresh.
Studying for recitation courses
For classes that require recitation, such as foreign language, be sure to schedule a study period just before the class. Use the time to practice. Sometimes, practice with others can help sharpen your skills in a before-class study period.
Making and revising a schedule
Don't be afraid to revise your schedule. Schedules are really plans for how you intend to use your time. If your schedule doesn't work, revise it. You must understand that your schedule is to help you develop good study habits. Once you have developed them, schedule building becomes easier.
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How To Improve Your English
Learning English (or any language for that matter) is a process. You are continually improving your English and the following "How to" describes a strategy to make sure that you continue to improve effectively.
Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.
Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why?
Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week.
Remember to make learning a habit! If you study each day for 10 minutes English will be constantly in your head. If you study once a week, English will not be as present in your mind.
Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials
Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.
Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging.
Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.
Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.
Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective.
Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!
Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!
Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.
A car accident is an incident during which an automobile either departs from regular pathway into a ditch, or collides with anything that causes damage to the automobile, including other automobiles, telephone poles, buildings, and trees. Sometimes a car accident may also refer to an automobile striking a human or animal. Car accidents — also called road traffic accidents (RTAs), traffic collisions, auto accidents, road accidents, personal injury collisions, motor vehicle accidents, and crashes — kill an estimated 1.2 million people worldwide each year, and injure about forty times this number (WHO, 2004). The term "accident" is considered an inappropriate word by some, as reliable sources estimate that upwards of 90% are the result of driver negligence. In the UK the Department of Transport publish road deaths in each type of vehicle. These statistics are available as "Risk of injury measured by percentage of drivers injured in a two car injury accident."
These statistics show a ten to one ratio of in-vehicle accident deaths between the least safe and most safe models of car.
The statistics show that for popular, lightly built cars, occupants have a 6%-8% chance of death in a two car accident. (e.g. BMW 3 series 6%, Subaru Impreza 8%, Honda Accord 6%). Traditional "safety cars" such as the Volvos halve that chance (Volvo 700 4% incidence of death, Volvo 900 3%).
The Jeep Cherokee and the Toyota Land Cruiser SUV have a 2% incidence of occupant death in actual crashes. However, in multiple-vehicle crashes SUVs are probably between three (Bicycle Safety Almanac) and six (International Injury & Fatality Statistics) times more likely to kill the occupant of the other vehicle (car, cyclist, or pedestrian) than cars.
Overall the four best vehicles to be in are the Jaguar XJ series 1%, Mercedes-Benz S-Class / SEC 1%, Land Rover Defender 1% and Land Rover Discovery 1%.
Motorcyclist deaths within England and Wales stand at 53% of the annual road death statistics. Scooters/mopeds up to 50cc only account for 3% of those deaths. 2% of the scooter deaths were 16-19 year olds who had not taken CBT (Compulsory Basic Training). (Statistics taken from 2004/2005 DSA annual road deaths percentages)
The first fatality in a steam-driven vehicle may have been Mary Ward who on 31 August 1869 fell under a steam car in Ireland.
In the UK, the first person to die in a petrol-driven car collision was a pedestrian, Bridget Driscoll, in 1896. The first driver/passenger deaths occurred on 25 February 1899. A 6 HP Daimler, driven by thirty-one-year-old engineer Edwin Sewell, crashed on Grove Hill, a steeply graded road on the northern slope of Harrow on the Hill, Middle***, now in north-west London. A rear wheel collapsed after breaking its rim and the car hit a sturdy brick wall. Sewell was killed immediately when he and his passenger, a Major Richer, were thrown from the vehicle. Richer died 3 days later in hospital. The spot is now marked with a commemorative plaque.
Responsibility of car manufacturers
Car makers have been both accused of making cars that go too fast, and praised for the safety measures (such as ABS) found in new models.
A number of books have critically analysed the responsibility of car makers for safety. The most famous is probably Ralph Nader's Unsafe At Any Speed: The Designed-In Dangers of the American Automobile, and more recently Keith Bradsher's High and Mighty: the dangerous rise of SUVs (in Europe subtitled the world's most dangerous vehicles and how they got that way) has discussed popular concerns with the rise in popularity of the SUV.
Trends in collision statistics
Road toll figures show that car collision fatalities have declined since 1980, with most countries showing a reduction of roughly 50%. This drop appears to confirm the efficacy of safety measures introduced thereafter, assuming that driver behaviour has not changed significantly.
In the United States, fatalities have increased slightly from 40,716 in 1994 to 42,884 in 2003. However, in terms of fatalities per 100 million miles driven, the fatality rate has dropped 16% between 1995 and 2005. Injuries dropped 37% over the same period. (National Traffic Safety Administration, 2006)
It has been noted that road fatality trends closely follow the so-called "Smeed's law" (after RJ Smeed, its author), an empirical rule relating injury rates to the two-thirds power of car ownership levels.
Types of collisions
Car accidents fall into several major categories (whose names are self-explanatory):
Collisions can occur with other automobiles, other vehicles such as bicycles or trucks, with pedestrians or large animals (such as moose), and with stationary structures or objects, such as trees or road signs.
In a collision between two cars, the occupants of a car with the lower mass will likely suffer the greater consequences.
Car collisions usually carry legal consequences in proportion to the severity of the accident. Nearly all common law jurisdictions impose some kind of requirement that parties involved in a collision (even with only stationary property) must stop at the scene, and exchange insurance or identification information or summon the police. Failing to obey this requirement is referred to as hit and run and is generally a criminal offence. Most car claims are settled without using an attorney.
Parties involved in an accident may face criminal liability, civil liability, or both. Usually, the state starts a prosecution only if someone is severely injured or killed, or if one of the drivers involved was clearly grossly negligent or intoxicated or otherwise impaired at the time the accident occurred. Charges might include driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, assault with a deadly weapon, manslaughter, or murder; penalties range from fines to jail time to prison time to death (although the death penalty is not applicable in many jurisdictions). It is notable that the penalties for killing and injuring with motor vehicles are often very much less than for other actions with similar outcomes.
As for civil liability, automobile accident personal injury lawsuits have become the most common type of tort. Because these cases have been litigated often in the developed First World nations, the legal questions usually have been answered in prior judgments. So, the courts most usually decide solely the factual questions of who is at fault, and how much they (or their insurer) must pay out in damages to the injured plaintiff.
Another element of liability involves the administrative fines or license suspension/revocation that may be imposed by civil or criminal authorities when a driver has violated the rules of the road and thus the terms of a driver's license. Such complaint may be filed by a police officer or sometimes by other witnesses of an incident.
Rubbernecking is where drivers slow down to look at recent collisions or anything out of the ordinary on the highway. Events ranging from gruesome car accidents to a police car stopped on the shoulder can cause traffic jams on both sides of the road, even if the roadway has been cleared.
Although caution is advised when there is unexpected activity on the side of a road, a car with a flat tire on the side of a highway often causes as much slow down as a real accident would due to rubbernecking. The slowdown in traffic persists even after the accident scene has been cleared if traffic is dense. Traffic experts call this phenomenon a phantom accident. This behaviour can potentially cause additional and sometimes more serious accidents among the distracted rubberneckers.
Studies have shown some evidence of just how dramatically rubbernecking affects traffic flow, with estimates  being as significant as every minute of actual congestion resulting in 10 minutes of flow-on congestion. Such impact is readily observed in the event of a crash on a major arterial route, where traffic backs up on both sides of the road at roughly equal rates.
Backup accidents happen when a driver reverses their car into an object, person, or another car. Although most cars come equipped with rear view mirrors, which are adequate for detecting vehicles behind a car, they are inadequate on many vehicles for detecting small children or objects close to the ground, which fall in the car's blind spot. Large trucks have much larger blind spots that can hide entire vehicles and large adults.
According to research by Kids and Cars – an organization devoted to preventing (non-traffic) motor-vehicle-related deaths and injuries – 49% of the non-traffic, non-crash fatalities involving children under 15 from 2001-2005 were caused by vehicles backing up.
The CDC reported that from 2001-2003, an estimated 7,475 children (2,492 per year) under the age of 15 were treated for automobile back-over accidents.
In its “Deaths and Injuries Resulting from Certain Non-Traffic and Non-Crash Events,” report issued in May of 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration found that back-up accidents most often:
Occur in residential driveways and parking lots
Involve sport utility vehicles (SUVs) or small trucks
Occur when a parent, relative or someone known to the family is driving
Particularly affect children less than five years old
The driver of the car backing up and hitting an object, a person, or another car is usually considered to be at fault.
Prevention organizations suggest that parents use common sense, and also take safety measures such as installing cross view mirrors, audible collision detectors, rear view video camera and/or some type of reverse backup sensors.
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